SaskatchewanBlind Sports Association




Bowlers follow the rules set out by the Five PinBowling Association with the option of using a guide rail that enables thebowler to line-up with the alley.  In addition, volunteer spotters mayassist the bowler in identifying pins in play.  



Curling is played with the same rules asregulation curling.  A team is made up of three athletes who are blind orvisually impaired and one sighted athlete.  During competitions the sightedperson plays the lead position.  Curlers may use flashlights, monoculars,plus verbal directions from team-mates.  



Characteristics of Goalball

As its name suggests Goalball is a ball game; itis also a team game. It has three characteristics, which distinguish it from allteam ball games played by sighted people. Firstly it is played with a ball thathas sounders, so that its position can be located when in motion. Secondly it isplayed on a court with tactile markings. This enables a player to determinetheir position on court, by checking the markings with their feet or theirhands. Thirdly all players wear eyeshades to block out any residual sight sothat all players are on an equal playing field.

Setting a court for play

The amount of time necessary to prepare to playGoalball should not be underestimated. An 18m x 9m court has to be set inaccordance with the pattern shown below. In tournament play all the lines aretactile.

The entire court is the same size as a standardVolleyball court. The participants learn the pattern of markings beforepreparing to play. Players use the markings for positioning and orientation.

The ball

The game is played with a ball that weighs 1.25kgand is manufactured to an IBSA specification. The essential feature of the ballis that it is audible when in motion; players can locate the ball by listening.


In Goalball all the players have to beblindfolded, to equalize the playing field for all players. For tournament playthe quality of the shades needs to meet the standard. The rules require thatplayers must not touch their eyeshades during play; players must seek theacknowledgement of a referee to make any necessary adjustment to their eyeshadesduring play.

How the game is played

The game consists of two 12-minute halves with a3-minute half time. To play the game there are three players on court for eachof two teams. One team plays at one end of the court and the other team plays atthe other end. The ball is thrown from end to end, which is 18 metres!

When a legal throw is made the outcome is usuallyone of the following four possibilities. Firstly the ball may cross the goalline at the end of the court opposite the throwing end, in which case a goal isscored. Secondly the ball may be thrown out of court at one of the sides, inwhich case 'out' is called, and the ball is given to a player at the endopposite to the thrower. 'Play' is called and play continues. Thirdly a ball maygo out of court over a sideline, having been deflected by a defending player. Inthis case 'blocked out' is called, and the ball is given to a player at the endopposite to the thrower. 'Play' is called and play continues. Fourthly adefending player may block the ball, in which case play just continues withoutinterruption.

Offensive constraints

There are three principal constraints, whichapply to the manner of throwing. First a thrown ball must touch the floor of thecourt before passing over the 3 metre line on the offensive end. Second a throwmust take place within 10 seconds of contact of the defending team. Passing cantake place within the 10 seconds, and players may move about the court to adoptfavorable positions. Third, no player may take more than two consecutive throwsat any time during the game.

Defensive play

The three players on the court are involved inthe defense, and although the rules do not require them to adopt specificdefensive locations, the convention is that they play with a center personplaying on the front line of the team area, and wingers playing on the"wing line" or behind on either side of the team area. The initialdefensive contact with the ball must take place within the team area, i.e.within the back three meters of the court.


A penalty is assessed against a team in breach ofthe rules mentioned. This means that the offending team/player has to defend apenalty throw with only one defender.


The court markings, the ball and eyeshades arementioned above. Goals are 9 meters wide (the full width of the court) and 1.3meters high.

Protective padding is largely a matter ofpersonal preference. The most vulnerable parts to body in terms of contact withthe floor are: knees, elbows and hips. Commercially available padding forvolleyball, in-line skating and hockey are all used.



Golf is played with standard equipment andfollows the rules of regulation golf.  A guide assists the golfer withvisual cues related to distance, lay of the green, course obstacles, and assistswith lining up the shot.  


Lawn Bowls

Utilizing regulation size greens, the lawn bowlermay be assisted by verbal cues related to distance, status of the bowl, andlining up the shot.  A tactile string may also be used for the samepurpose. 




Back To Top

             SaskatchewanBlind Sports Association

510Cynthia Street
Saskatoon, SK.    S7L 7K7   Canada
Ph: (306) 975-0888 or Toll Free 1-877-772-7798